## CCC '13 S4 - Who is Taller?

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Points: 7
Time limit: 1.0s
Memory limit: 512M

Problem type
##### Canadian Computing Competition: 2013 Stage 1, Senior #4

You have a few minutes before your class starts, and you decide to compare the heights of your classmates. You don't have an accurate measuring device, so you just compare relative heights between two people: you stand two people back-to-back, and determine which one of the two is taller. Conveniently, none of your classmates are the same height, and you always compare correctly (i.e., you never make a mistake in your comparisons).

After you have done all of your comparisons, you would like to determine who the tallest person is between two particular classmates.

#### Input Specification

The first line contains two integers and separated by one space. , the number of people in the class, is an integer with . , the number of comparisons that have already been done, is an integer with . Each of the next lines contains two distinct integers and () separated by a space, indicating that person number was determined to be taller than person number . Finally, the last line contains two distinct integers and () separated by one space: your goal is to determine, if possible, whether person is taller than person . Note that it may be the case that neither nor occur in the input concerning measurements between classmates, and each measurement between any two particular people will be recorded exactly once.

An additional subtask worth 33% of the points have been added to break incorrect solutions which AC on official test data. Data provided by Tzak.

#### Output Specification

The output is one line, containing one of three possible strings:

• yes (if is taller than ),
• no (if is taller than ),
• unknown (if there is not enough information to determine the relative heights of and ).

#### Sample Input 1

10 3
8 4
3 8
4 2
3 2

#### Output for Sample Input 1

yes

#### Sample Input 2

10 3
3 8
2 8
3 4
3 2

#### Output for Sample Input 2

unknown

• commented on May 30, 2021, 5:43 p.m.

Help... I constantly got TLE on the last two subtasks. To reduce the time, I tried BFS, I tried HashSet, I tried BufferedReader, but the first task in the second last subtask always gives me TLE. Here's my code (java). I looked up solutions online, and they are all super similar to mine. Anyone knows what's wrong with my code?

• commented on June 1, 2021, 6:08 p.m.

Your method of storing the graph is very inefficient. Due to the high constraint, your code would be too slow. However, you are pretty close to the TL.

• commented on May 31, 2021, 7:43 p.m.

It's too slow.

• commented on Nov. 14, 2020, 9:21 p.m. edited

Did you know that switching to C++ from Python could cut down your time by 80% and give you 10 points?

EDIT: Never mind.

• commented on Nov. 15, 2020, 4:50 p.m. edited

The issue isn't with python, your code just isn't very efficient. First of all, using "not in" to check if something is visited already is very slow. I'm pretty sure it just brute forces the entire array to check if the element is in there which makes it O(n) when checking if something is visited should be O(1). A better alternative is to check if the index of the element has already been marked as true. You also used "in" to check if person p/q is in the queue when instead you can just terminate bfs as soon as you encounter them. Also, you need to mark something as visited immediately after adding it to the queue rather than after retrieving it from the queue. This way you won't add the same element to the queue multiple times.

• commented on Nov. 15, 2020, 2:26 p.m.

Not sure about that 80% calculation, but if you did any sort of checking over AC submissions, you'll see that there are many ACs in Python, so using it would not prevent you from getting your 10 points.

• commented on Aug. 30, 2020, 6:17 p.m.

Feel like it would be weird if you came up to someone and started just measuring their height, but what do I know.

• commented on Oct. 18, 2020, 5:02 p.m.

I think it's weirder that you class can have 1000000 students.

• commented on May 31, 2021, 7:34 p.m.

Agreed

• commented on Aug. 12, 2020, 8:51 p.m. edited

My code printed "unknown" but for some reason it "tle"d.

Plz check.

• commented on Aug. 12, 2020, 9:00 p.m.

HashSets are pretty slow. If you change all your HashSets to ArrayLists you won't TLE anymore.

• commented on May 30, 2021, 4:02 p.m.

I thought HashSets has O(1) time while ArrayList has O(n)? I tried to convert HashSets into ArrayLists, but the time is not faster nor slower.

• commented on Aug. 12, 2020, 9:02 p.m.

• commented on April 6, 2020, 8:20 p.m.

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• commented on March 26, 2020, 2:37 p.m.

Why did my solution which got AC yesterday change to a TLE, but when I resubmitted the exact same code today I once again got AC?

• commented on March 26, 2020, 3:38 p.m.

Due to a recent complaints about the time limit, we decided to buff the weak official test-data with and . After adding the test-data, we rejudged all AC solutions. However, it seemed that the test-data was too strong, and only C++ solutions with fast I/O passed comfortably under the time limit. We have since reverted the change and changed back the time limit and points, so now your submission has an AC verdict.

• commented on April 29, 2021, 6:39 p.m.

ok wait, so if you guys buffed the test data and then reverted the change, what are the constraints for N and M now?

• commented on April 30, 2021, 3:51 p.m. edit 2

now it appears that and (I tested the constraints by submitting a bunch of times)

• commented on March 24, 2020, 6:23 a.m.

The new time limit seems too strict.

• commented on March 24, 2020, 4:26 p.m.

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• commented on March 24, 2020, 5:05 p.m.

They have removed the subtask that was causing the TLE.

• commented on March 23, 2020, 3:26 p.m.

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• commented on March 23, 2020, 3:33 p.m.

You are confusing total runtime with maximum runtime. The Java 9 submission that previously ran in 23.896 seconds now runs in 5.904 seconds (using Java 8, as we no longer support Java 9), taking 0.852 seconds in the worst case, compared to 2.170 seconds on the older judges.

Also I would personally advise not annoying Xyene, he is usually the kindest of the administrators :)

• commented on March 23, 2020, 3:42 p.m.

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• commented on March 23, 2020, 4:03 p.m.

In case it wasn't clear, the time limit is for the maximum running time for all cases. That is each case must run under the time limit.

The time displayed on the All submissions list is for the total running time, which is the sum of all times for each test case.

For example, on the submission status page, you might see the following:

Case #1:    AC  [0.500s,    8.79 MB]
Case #2:    AC  [0.900s,    8.74 MB]
Case #3:    AC  [0.600s,    8.77 MB]
Case #4:    AC  [0.700s,    8.73 MB]
Case #5:    AC  [0.800s,    8.77 MB]

Here, each case is marked as AC because it is under the current time limit of 1.0 seconds. However, the total time will be displayed as 3.5 seconds, as that is the sum of the times for each test case. You can see this at the bottom of the submission status page where it will say:

Resources: 3.500s, 8.79 MB

This will be the time that is displayed on the All submissions list.

• commented on March 23, 2020, 4:03 p.m.

Yes, that is a relic from the old judges.

Rejudging the roughly 2 million submissions would be quite a waste of time, do you not agree?

• commented on March 23, 2020, 4:02 p.m. edited

Yes, I'm not sure which part of this we're not getting across. New judges are fast, old judges were slower; we did not rejudge 2 million submissions when we switched because that would've taken over a month of 24/7 rejudging. Nor will we. Historical submissions have larger runtimes than they would if they were to be submitted today.

Your solution should not have passed, but did thanks to the faster judges, so we have adjusted the time limit accordingly.

• commented on March 23, 2020, 1:54 p.m.

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• commented on March 23, 2020, 3:10 p.m.

We recently (~two weeks ago) provisioned new baremetal servers for the judges to run on, that have more consistent timing and grade 2-5 times faster. Problem time limits were rescaled automatically based on a randomized sample of submissions, so some may currently have time limits that are either too low or too high.

Since you were particularly uncharitable in your remark here, I've gone and rejudged the slowest submission prior to switching the judges over. As it passes comfortably within a second, I've set the time limit for this problem to a second, and rejudged existing submissions.

• commented on Feb. 17, 2020, 5:21 p.m.

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• commented on Feb. 17, 2020, 5:32 p.m.

You are initializing an array of . Try using an adjacency list instead.

• commented on Feb. 17, 2020, 9:31 p.m.

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• commented on Feb. 18, 2020, 9:23 p.m.

I think the main reason is just that your BFS algorithm is kind of weird. I recommend looking at some standard BFS implementations.

• commented on Feb. 18, 2020, 7:42 p.m.

To fix your issue with going over the time limit I suggest learning how to use a BufferedReader.

• commented on Feb. 17, 2020, 11:08 p.m.

DMOJ has a slack workspace for a reason

• commented on Feb. 17, 2020, 5:45 p.m.

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• commented on Jan. 18, 2020, 4:39 p.m.

when you TLE the last case

• commented on Dec. 13, 2019, 8:49 p.m.

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• commented on Dec. 13, 2019, 9:27 p.m.

directional

• commented on July 29, 2017, 10:43 p.m.

BFS not good enough?

I implemented a rather simple BFS for this question, but I MLE'd test case 6-1 in PyPy2 and TLE'd it in normal python. Is this meant to be a BFS question?

• commented on July 29, 2017, 11:37 p.m.

It is solvable in Python, but maybe try C or Java?

• commented on July 30, 2017, 11:10 a.m. edited

I'm not very familiar with other languages at the moment, so I would just like to know if the other python solutions used BFS or a different approach (or a different twist on BFS).

• commented on July 30, 2017, 4:47 p.m. edit 2

Most solutions used bfs or dfs. Python 3 and PyPy3 seem to be a bit more lenient on memory than Python 2 and PyPy2 for this question (for me at least).

• commented on July 30, 2017, 7:12 p.m. edited

Ok I figured it out, the issue lay in the fact that I used sys.stdin.read().split('\n') to read the whole file, and since the file was huge, it took up a lot of memory. I just switched to redefining 'input()' to sys.stdin.readline. Thanks for the help!

• commented on July 29, 2017, 11:34 p.m.

It most certainly is.

• commented on Feb. 17, 2015, 8:21 p.m.

I really like the fact that this problem goes for the realism. Its something that you rarely see in a programming contest. I appreciate CCC for acknowledging the fact that class sizes in Canada have become far too large. Join this petition to create classrooms where LESS than 1 000 000 have to be crammed together. I mean, how would it be even remotely possible to personally teach all of these children. Think of the children!

• commented on Aug. 9, 2019, 7:58 p.m.

Screw doug ford!!

• commented on Feb. 17, 2015, 9:22 p.m.

std::sort(students, students + numStudents);

I wish c++ worked in real life

• commented on Feb. 6, 2017, 10:23 p.m.

memset(students_marks, 0, numstudents);