Aside from learning music, Mimi has decided to learn a new programming language!
Ring is a simple programming language used to perform simple calculations.
A Ring program keeps a single integer
X in memory, initially set to zero, and repeatedly performs addition, subtraction, and multiplication operations on it.
Formally, the language has six types of syntax:
||Begin the definition of a function with the unique name
||End of the current function definition|
Function definitions can be nested, in which case
END represents the end of the most recent function definition that has not already been ended.
For function calls, the function
F must have been defined on a previous line and a function cannot call itself (otherwise, infinite recursion would happen).
For example, the result of the following program is 5:
FUN INCREMENT ADD 1 END CALL INCREMENT MULT 2 ADD 3
Mimi has written a few programs in Ring, but she finds that her interpreter takes an eternity to execute them. Can you help Mimi determine the results of her Ring programs?
The first line begins with a single integer , the number of test cases. test cases follow.
Each test case begins with one integer , the number of instructions in the program.
The next lines each contain an instruction in the format described above.
All integers will be non-negative and less than or equal to . Function names will be upper-case and at most 10 letters long.
For the first three cases, there are no function definitions.
For the next two cases, there is at most one function declaration.
For each test case, print the result of the program, modulo .
Note: " modulo " is defined as the positive remainder of divided by .
2 3 ADD 1 MULT 1000000000 ADD 7 6 FUN INCREMENT ADD 1 END CALL INCREMENT MULT 2 ADD 3
Note: you do NOT need to pass the sample to pass some of the cases.
Educational Computing Organization of Ontario - statements, test data and other materials can be found at ecoocs.org