Given two integers ~S~ and ~F~, what is the XOR (exclusive-or) of all numbers between ~S~ and ~F~ (inclusive)?
The first line of input is the integer ~T~, which is the number of test cases ~(1 \le T \le 1000)~.
~T~ lines follow, with each line containing two integers ~S~ and ~F~ ~(1 \le S \le F \le 1\,000\,000\,000)~.
For each test case, output the (decimal) value of the XOR of all numbers between ~S~ and ~F~, inclusive.
5 3 10 5 5 13 42 666 1337 1234567 89101112
Output for Sample Input
8 5 39 0 89998783